Internal migration (within the country) is largest in India. Maharashtra has received maximum net in-migrants. Net out-migrants of state are from Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Bihar. Greater Mumbai receive maximum net in-migrants for urban areas. Today there are many migrant tribals form Bihar, Orissa states in various villages, towns and cities in TamilNadu and Kerala. Delhi is recently filled with people from south, northeast and north of country. Majority of male migrate due to work and employment reasons. . Majority of female migrate due to marriage reasons.
In the case of most intra-state and inter-state unskilled and semi-skilled migrants, migrant laborers run high risks of exploitation for they are exposed to large uncertainties and lack access to information and knowledge, thus making it very difficult for them to switch jobs in case of dissatisfaction with the current employer. Because of their option-less situation, these labourers less bargaining power and thereby fail to negotiate reasonable pay scales and fair working conditions with the contractors. They are unorganized sector workers.
Most migrants live in open spaces; make shift shelters or illegal settlements, which lack the basic infrastructure and access to civic amenities. They have no local ration cards which can provide them their food at subsidized rates through the Public Distribution system. They are highly prone to occupational health hazards and vulnerable to epidemics including HIV/AIDS.
Since the migrants are mobile, their children have no crèche facilities or access to schooling. They do not come under the purview of either the local government or the NGO programs for they do not belong to that particular region. So citing the problem of monitoring, most agencies leave them outside the scope of development intervention. They are “invisible”, and are not acknowledged and are denied access even to basic amenities in most of the cases. They have no identity in the places where they live and no voice in the places they have left behind.
In India, labour migrants are largely found in the developed states, the traditional migrant-receiving states, typically, coming from underdeveloped regions of the country and being comprised primarily of the most marginalized sectors of society, namely the Tribals and the Scheduled Castes (SCs). These migrants are entirely without legal protection or social security.
Migration offers a very fertile ground for traffickers.. In India, migrants who leave their homes in search for better employment opportunities and marital prospects, fall easy preys to traffickers. India performs all the three roles of being a country of origin, transit and destination in the process of trafficking. At a country level, India is ranked high in the citation index as a country of origin and destination and is ranked medium in the citation index as a country of transit .Alongside cross-border trafficking, internal trafficking of women, children and men for purposes of sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, bonded labour, and indentured servitude too is widespread.
 Trafficking in Persons – Global Patterns, UNODC 2008
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